Cleaner Production is a business tool to economic growth and reduce pollution load in to an environment as well as help to conserve the resources. The protection of the environment and conservation of natural resources are the major issues for the sustainable development. In Agenda 21, UNCED (United Nation Conference on Environment and Development) gives the high priority to the introduction of CP methods and preventive and recycling technologies in order to achieve sustainable Development.
UNEP has defined Cleaner Production (CP) as continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to process, products and services to increase efficiency and to reduce risk to human and to environment. This approach minimizes wastes, enhances productivity and hence profitability while it reduces the discharge of wastes or pollutants to environment.
The terminologies use for CP is source reduction, Pollution Prevention, Waste minimization, Eco-efficiency, Green Productivity etc.
Cleaner Production is a tool in a business to achieve economic and environmental benefits simultaneously.
Cleaner Production Techniques and methodology:
The techniques of Cleaner Production consists of change in input raw materials, Good housekeeping and better process control, Onsite reuse and recycle, Equipment modification and Technology change and Product reformulation and production of useful by products from waste. The techniques and practices of CP focus also on areas such as efficient use and conservation of resources, operating efficiencies, training, purchasing techniques, product design and process changes. It is also known as a low cost or no cost techniques
Benefits of the implementation of Cleaner Production Techniques:
CP is not only reduces the environmental impacts but it value adds in economic and social sectors. CP is a very cost effective approach and easy to implement in any organization with out quality compromise in the product formulation.
The main benefits of CP are as follows:
• Decrease in production cost through greater efficiency
• Decrease in energy consumption
• Decrease in waste of materials inputs
• Decrease in waste disposal and treatment costs
• Recovery of valuable by- products
• Increase productivity
• Decrease in liability risks
• Creation of new opportunities and markets
• Decrease in environmental impacts and risks
• Better compliance with environmental as well as other relevant rules and regulations
• Better working environments
• Better public images
• Improvement in the quality of product
Barriers for CP implementation in an organization:
• Lack of awareness
• Lack of Enforcement
• Lack of information and knowledge
• Lack of capital resources
• Resistance to change
• Lack of policy, Responsibility and incentive
UNEP has developed the five phase methodology to implement CP. These are as follows:
• Planning and Organizing Phase
• Pre-assessment Phase
• Assessment Phase
• Feasibility Phase
• Implementation Phase